位于南太平洋的世界上最小的独立共和国瑙鲁,它是世界上肥胖率最高的国家之一。大约71.1%的成年人被认为是肥胖。由于世卫组织将肥胖被定义为“异常或过度的脂肪堆积可能损害健康”。最重要的直接结果或副现象是心血管疾病(如中风),其中提到的是2012年死亡的主要原因。其他疾病包括糖尿病、肌肉骨骼疾病(如骨关节炎)、某种癌症和精神障碍。


  如今,瑙鲁的肥胖可能是由于缺乏健康的环境,尤其是缺乏新鲜健康的食物和缺乏体力活动造成的。除此之外,还必须讨论前一时期的其他原因,这也可能是目前局势的原因。


  1968独立后,瑙鲁曾经是世界上最富有的国家之一,由于其丰富的磷酸盐矿床,人均国内生产总值的比率很高。由于治理不善,例如资金管理不善,缺乏结构、经济和环境政策,瑙鲁最终破产了。今天,该国是一个低收入国家,其特点如下:


  Tableofcontent


  1ObesityasthemajorhealthriskforthepopulationoftheRepublicofNauru–CausesandImpact……………………………………………………………….3


  2PossibilitiesandconstraintsofhealthprotectionpoliciesinNauru……………..4


  2.1AssessmentoftherequirementsofadequatehealthpoliciesinNauru……...4


  2.2DiscussionofFinancingOptionsofSocialHealthProtectionintheCaseof


  Nauru…………………………………………………………………………6


  3ConclusionsandRecommendation………………………………………………8


  1ObesityasthemajorhealthriskforthepopulationoftheRepublicofNauru–


  CausesandImpact


  Theworld’ssmallestindependentRepublicNauru,whichislocatedintheSouthPacificOcean,setadistressingrecordofbeingoneofthecountrieswiththehighestobesityrates.About71.1%adultofthepopulationareconsideredtobeobese(CIA2014).DuetotheWHO(2014),obesityisdefinedas“abnormalorexcessivefataccumulationthatmayimpairhealth”.Themostimportantdirectresultsorepiphenomenaarecardiovasculardiseases(e.g.stroke),whicharementionedbytheWHOastheleadingcauseofdeathin2012.Otherailmentsarediabetes,musculoskeletaldisorders(e.g.osteoarthritis)somesortofcanceraswellasmentaldisorders(WHO2014).


  Nowadays,obesityatNaurumayresultfromthelackofaccesstoahealthyenvironment,especiallylackofaccesstofreshandhealthyfoodandlackofphysicalactivity.Besidesthat,otherreasonsfrompreviousperiodshavetobediscussedshortly,whichmayalsoberesponsibleforthepresentsituation.


  Afterindependencein1968,NauruusedtobeoneoftherichestcountriesintheworldwithhighratesofGDPpercapitaduetoitsrichphosphatedeposits.Duetobadgovernance,forinstancethemismanagementoffunds,lackofstructural,economicandenvironmentalpolicies,Nauruwentbankruptfinally.Today,therepublicisalow-incomecountryandcanbecharacterizedbythefollowingattributes:


  Lackofestablishedindustries


  Deterioratingcapitalplants


  Highunemploymentrateof90%duetoestimationsbytheCIAof2005(CIA2014)


  Destroyedlandscape(90%ofthelandaredeterioratedduetointensivephosphatemining)(CIA2014)


  Highdependencyonimportsofalmostallgoods(foodandotherconsumergoods)


  Highdependencyfromaid,especiallyfromthedonorAustralia


  Inspiteofallthesehealthproblems,Naurulacksagoodhealthcaresystemanditcannotaffordtocreateonebecauseofitsweakeconomicandsocialstate.Now,Naurulacksthecapacitiestodealwiththemostimportanthealthriskobesityontheonehand,whichaffectsthemajorityofthecountry.Ontheotherhanditcanbeestimated,thatNauruwillnotbeabletocreateanenvironmentforthecommunitytopreventfurtherprogressofoverweightandobesitywithinthenextyears.Forthatreasonitcanbestated,thatthecountrywillnotbeabletodealwiththeprobleminaproperwayintheshortandintheintermediateterm.


  Inthelightofthis,thepaperwouldexaminethepresentsituationsofNauruhealthcareandwhythestandardfinancingoptionswon′tworkwhilealsofalsifyingalreadytestedhypothesesabouttheeffectivenessofstandardfinancingoptions.


  2PossibilitiesandconstraintsofhealthprotectionpoliciesinNauru


  2.1AssessmentoftherequirementsofadequatehealthpoliciesinNauru


  Whataretherequirementsforanadequatehealthpolicy,andhowmightthesituationinNaurulooklike,indetail?Inthefollowing,thischapterisgoingtoanswerthestatedquestions.Therefore,itusessixbasicindicatorsofgoodhealthpolicies;thefocusonlifestyleandneedsofpopulation,considerationofothersectorsrelevantforhealth,participationofthepopulation,useoflocallyavailableresources,integrationandcoordinationofpreventive,promotional,curativeandrehabilitativemeasures,anddecentralizationofservices.


  Withthis,thesubjectofthefollowingchapteristocreateanunderstandingofNauru′ssituationtoday,whilesimultaneouslytryingtopresentthemajorproblems.


  Focusonlifestyleandneedsofpopulation


  Beginningwithlifestyle,weaddressdirectlyoneofthemajorproblems.Beforethecountrybecamerich,duetophosphateexportation,thepopulationprovidedthemselvesthroughfarming,fishingandhunting(20min2011).Thenaturalfoodandthegentlycookingpreparation,throughboiling,supportedtheinhabitantswithhealthy,organicandsubstantialfood.Butwiththegrowingincometheeatinghabitschangedtowardsimported,fatanddurablefoodfromtheWest,especially,meatandchipsfoundtheirwayinthesupermarketsandsointostomachsofthepopulation.Togetherwithalowamountofworkingpeople,Nauruangrewfatterandunhealthier.


  Anotherproblemisthatonlyprocessedorcannedfoodfindsitswayontheisland,untiltoday,becausethetransportationofvegetablesorfruitswouldtaketoolongandwouldbetooexpensive.Evenwithanactivegovernment,theimportedgoodsarestillaproblem(20min2011).


  Thelifestyleofthepopulationchangedoverthelastdecades.Today′sgovernmentfocusesontheproblemandistryingtosupportthepopulation.Informationonmeasuresandprogramsarediscussedinseveralmediabutarenotpublishedviaofficialchannels.Thereforeitremainsquestionable,ifthegovernment′seffortsaresufficientandsuitabletoaddresstheproblems.


  Useoflocallyavailableresources–consideringtheirscarcity


  Theconsiderationsofthegovernmentleadtodailywalksofthepresident,anti-obesitycampaigns,withsignsandbanners,andasupportcampaignfornaturalandhealthyfoods,whichseemedtohavesomesuccess.Especiallythesmalltrendtowardsmorehealthyfood,developedwiththegrowingpoverty.Importedfoodisoftenmoreexpensivethanruralfood.Therefore,thepeopledonothavemuchofachoiceanditishardlytocountasasuccess.


  Participationofthepopulationinsearchforsolutions


  Theparticipationofthepopulationseemsrathersmall.EventhoughtheaveragelifespanofamaleNauruandroppedundertheageof50,thesupportofthepopulationislimited(WHONauru2012).Afewpeopleprofitfromtheworkingbenefits,onlytheyoungestgotoschoolorcollege.Theproblem,the95%obesepeople,arewhetherneitheryoungnorworking.Mostofthemareoutofschoolandnotworking.Therefore,theydonotseethenecessityforchange(NauruGovernment2014).Duetothis,theyarehardtomotivateandengage.Participationofthepopulationiscriticalforthesuccessofallmeasurestoreducethehealthrisks.Itcanbestated,thatparticipationisratherlow.Itshouldbeamajorconcernofthegovernmenttofocusonthatissue.


  Considerationofothersectorsrelevantforhealth


  Withtheacceptanceandnotionoftheproblemobesity,thegovernmenttriedtosupportthepopulationthroughsingleactivities;additionalfocusonsportactivitiesintheeducationsystem,freeaerobicclasses,thecreationofsporttournaments,theprovisionofmoresportareasandthesupportofthoseareaswiththeneededequipmentandaguaranteedtimeforemployeestodofitness.Naturally,becauseonlyafewpeoplework,onlyafewbenefitfromthewalkingregulation,whichdoesnotsupportachangeefficiently.Additionally,theystartedananti-diabetescampaignandinformchildreninschoolsaboutthedifficultiescomingfromanunhealthylifestyleearlyon.Asaresultofthis,thepresidentwalkseveryday,visibleforeveryone,onthelandingzoneoftheairport,tomotivatethepopulation(20min2011).

  Duetotherequirementsofadequatehealthpolicies,itcanbestated,thatNauruisnotabletoimprovethesituationremarkably.Atthemoment,theawarenessconcerningaresponsibilityandespeciallyself-responsibilityoftheNauruanauthoritiestoaddresstheneedsofahealthypopulationisnotobvious.Themajorargumenthereis,thatthereisnotransparencybecauseoflackofadequateinformation.


  Intermsoffinancingoptions,Nauruhastolookforother,maybeunconventionalfinancingoptionse.g.sellingtherightforanartsproject(film,book)becauseofthecountriesuniquepastorNaurucouldinitiateacrowdfundingcampaign,whichoffersadventurevacationformoney.Besidesthat,Naurushouldfocusonfinancingoptions,whichmakesthecountryindependentfromsingledonorstateslikeAustralia,e.g.creditattheWorldBank.

更多论文案例尽在代写毕业论文网站:www.pclunwen.com

  • 大成 :
  • 99658261
  • 大秦 :
  • 340504978

移动办公:18310981858

鹏程论文网提供MBA/MPA、经济管理、工商管理、教育管理、法律硕士、医学硕士、软件工程、在职硕士以及电子信息技术、计算机等各专业的硕士论文代写服务,还包括开题报告的撰写。 无需定金,信誉保证,当面交易,安全可靠 .

杂志库 更多>>