Abstract: in 1965, the American linguist hymes is put forward for the first time the concept of communicative competence, he pointed out that the mastery of the language a person is good or bad depends not only on whether he will make a lot of grammatical sentences, and also on to him whether the correct use of language. In the late 60's, many applied linguists and language teachers began to pay attention to the cultivation of students' communicative competence. Due to the communication method pays attention to the cultivation of students' communicative ability of a foreign language and let the students know in certain social environment, how to properly use the language ability, greatly meet the society's need for foreign language talents. Therefore, after the mid 1970s, communicative method is widely applied to English teaching.
Key words: communicative approach; middle school English; English Teaching
In the past few decades, these two kinds of teaching methods in middle school English classroom has been used translation method and heard. However translation pay attention to reading, the teaching of translation competence cultivation and grammatical knowledge, neglect the training of language skills, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and text reading teaching disjointed; listening and speaking too much emphasis on mechanical training and language structure, ignore language common rules put in and the content and significance of the role and language instruction. Obviously the inherent limitations of these two methods have been unable to meet the needs of the society for foreign language talents. Therefore, the communicative approach has emerged, and now it has become the goal of foreign language teaching in the world to cultivate students' communicative competence. According to the social function of language, the social function of language is to serve as a basis for social activities.
According to Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics (1985), CA, also known as as the center, is a foreign or second language communicative ability as the communicative approach in language teaching and learning objectives method. In fact, more and more are all kinds of emphasis in language teaching from many sources often promote or lead to the teaching and learning of language and communication. Instead of learning to use the rules of language, the use of language is more concerned.
In fact, there is no single authority, nor any model that is universally accepted by the authority. English is a broad range of language and language learning ideas or assumptions
To some, than a fusion of grammatical and functional teaching means. As Littlewood (1981:1) points out, "one of the most important characteristics of a communicative language teaching is that it pays attention to the functional and structural aspects of the system."
For others, this means that the use of the program, the learner's work, in the right or group, uses effective language resources in the task of solving the problem. There may be many different types of communication. In all of these important is the participation of at least two parties involved in the interaction or transaction one party has a certain intention and the other party to launch or intentions of the reaction. (ricbards and Rodgers 1986:66)
In addition, applied linguists always refer to the two versions of CA 15, which are proposed in foreign language learning." There are, in a sense, 'tight' version of CA and a "weak" version. In the past decade, weak version has become more and more standard practice, emphasize the importance of, providing opportunities for the learners, using their English communicative purpose, characteristics, trying to put these activities into a more extensive language teaching plan. On the other hand, the strong version of communicative language teaching, progress requirements, language is through communication. Therefore, it is not only a problem, activate the existing knowledge of the language, but to stimulate language system itself. If the former can be described as "learning to use", the latter needs to learn it in English.
In conclusion, the relative variety of ways that can be explained and applied can be attributed to different practitioners from different educational traditions and to the fact that different practitioners. Some advocates of CA give priority to semantics and focus on the concept, function, and speech act. Others, from the perspective of discourse analysis and conversation analysis, study the meaning of discourse analysis and conversation analysis, and focus on cohesion and coherence in the use of language. However, in the language teaching and learning, they are the "communicative competence" as the goal of the center.
Due to the continuous improvement of the level of scientific research in each era, which requires constant changes in teaching materials. For a long time, the English Teaching in middle schools has adopted the grammar translation method in our country ". It is in fact the language as a knowledge, the students to teach English knowledge as the main purpose of teaching. Nine years of compulsory education textbooks to grammar as the key link, and the ideological education in the teaching materials. Junior middle school students with sentence pattern teaching as the main goal, middle and high grade to cultivate reading ability as the main goal, and the new goal of the task based language teaching as the main idea of writing. Task based teaching is following the development of communicative teaching ideas of a new teaching approach, it is the language of the application of basic concepts into classroom teaching methods with practical significance, with students as the subject of the learning activities, the task as the center, in the use of language to complete a variety of missions Cheng Zhonglai learn experience and master the language.
This stage requires students to use previously learned language materials by dialogue or freedom of speech, the students are divided into several groups, each group of 6 people a day by 4-, a group of students to the podium performances. For example: call, greeting, greeting, duty etc.. In various forms, can be improvised, can be a monologue, dialogue, story, can be introduced, can also be reviewed....... All these should focus on new knowledge, but also can review the past learned. This meets the high school students to the front of the stage to show their own desires, and make each of them are aware of their own can become a successful and able to learn English and use English communication, so as to enhance the self-confidence of students learning English.
This stage need teachers within eight to ten minutes, using different teaching methods, concise, vivid to explain some of the rules of grammar, the language materials with the use of visual aids and performance combined, create a natural, vivid language environment for students, teachers to teach in the scene, students in the scene of learning and practice, so as to achieve the teaching effect of success will come when conditions are ripe.
To be in the classroom at the beginning to create a harmonious atmosphere, stimulate students' interest in learning, best in class to design carefully a and the relevant lesson and close to life topic and encourage students through discussion or dialogue to elicit the topic. At the same time, this method can fully mobilize the students thinking ability and expression ability, and when the students are not familiar with the content of the textbook, the introduction of this method can stimulate students to learn the content of the enthusiasm of the course. For example, in the author explain the new target of the seventh grade English unit 5 do you have a soccer ball? First day, take the quiz import method, take a football or with a slide show presentation, and the use of "do you have..." To practice the questions and answers, as students of real or is slide is very interested in, so will be very actively cooperate with the teacher the quiz, thereby creating a good classroom atmosphere, naturally into the new lesson.
This stage focuses on the oral practice mainly, require students to concentrate on, through a series of communication activities, familiar with the structure of language, so that every student can get a chance to speak English, thus firmly master basic knowledge of English. Classroom communicative activities are mainly about the role play, pairwise combinations, guessing, guessing games, situational dialogues, discussion of a variety of forms.
Dangerous in addition to "pair" in the classroom, teachers should encourage students in their spare time to find "partner" together to improve English, or organizations English corner activity. Students can talk at a fixed time every week and their respective "partner", check the text familiar with the situation, discuss the problem; also block to talk about a topic and so on. In addition, teachers can organize some extracurricular activities, such as arranging students their presentation of some English drama, comedy, poetry, etc.. So you can make use of English from the short class time extends to the daily life of students.
To learn a foreign language well and make full use of the time in class is very important, so the teacher to elaborately designed classroom activities based on leading principles of communicative language teaching, to cultivate students' interest in learning English for the purpose, in the communicative language teaching, should give full play from the adjacent to the guide role play a good demonstration and guidance, organizer and coordinator, consultants and participants, the role of supervisor and evaluation, reduce students' dependence on teachers. At the same time, we must note is communicative approach does not exclude the use of other teaching methods, not with a fixed mode as a, but changes along with the change of the teaching object, teaching content and teaching situation, show a certain degree of flexibility.
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