Abstract: jack London's short story "fire" contains a strong naturalism, a novel by a simple story reveals the author's view of naturalism. Jack London is a famous American realism novelist, his works often unique, full of adventure, often put people in extreme natural environment, so as to reveal the character's real quality and the most profound emotions, the short story "fire" is no exception in this paper, by analyzing how the protagonist in the harsh natural environment, efforts to struggle, finally destroyed the yukon river side, but praise of bravery, fortitude, the noble quality. From a brief introduction to the content of the "fire", this paper analysis the naturalism.

Key words: naturalism; The fire; Elegy; Expression of meaning;


   A, the work of the author to Alaska to north-west Canada yukon that cold and wild territory as the background, tells the story of a gold seekers don't listen to advice, stubbornly to YiWuShi many degrees below zero in the low temperature alone through the desert of ice and snow to the camp to meet peers, but the failed to fire in the low temperature freeze to death. In the novel, jack London using dry brush strokes of depicting the snow in the north cold gloomy atmosphere, describes the madness of the show in front of the cold the forces of nature and human audacity to temporary despair and death struggle, in front of the readers and shows a heavy and sluggish acerbity, let a person feel more depressed and cold nature of futile struggle and stirring, expressed his over rising from the nature of human hubris prospective criticism.

As jack London's other stories in the north, "fire" and writer in Alaska during the gold rush that annoys his experience are closely related. During that journey, jack London had trudged boundless snowfield, across the vast jungle, through the dangerous rapids. But unfortunately, he fought hard but didn't find gold, not only that, but he also suffers from severe scurvy, and therefore have to end the itinerary. , though not with the desired material submitted to the arctic and extraordinary life experiences make severe jack London have access to various characters to gamble with life, deeply appreciate the ruthless of t nature and human life is fragile and helpless. During that journey, jack London t myself, not only to recognize the relation between man and nature at the same time, he also to thinking and comprehension of life in the story of his series in the north, "fire" is the representative work of its northern story series.

Clues to the traditional conflict of the novel, "fire" in the two clues cross wound with conflict. One hero gold prospectors and cold nature of conflict, the other is the conflict between reason and wood can gold itself. In the conflict of the first clues, gold eventually failed to victory in the struggle with nature, instead of being swallowed up in the vast xue; In article _ conflict clues, the survival of gold prospectors weak wood can not fight him as a person's rational, led to his eventual towards the end of life. Among two clues cross continuously reciprocating, jack London constantly put questions to the reader or between the natural and important issues: human in nature is in what position? The masters of human nature and other creatures on earth is still should take an equal status with other biological symbiosis, comply with the law of nature and respect nature? How, in front of the nature and human beings should seek blessing? With the further development of the plot, jack London by a heavy and sad story ending to us vividly expresses his natural tendency to the world view of the confused in the role of natural selection, survival of the fittest laws of nature, man should respect nature, respect nature, and should abandon the middleman dominate natural wild Ann thought of industrial society.

2.travel alone

It's hard to imagine a man traveling alone in fifty degrees below zero in the outdoor environment is how difficult, and there is no sun, a glimmer of sunshine all could not see. At the start of the novel, the author took pains to introduce the weather and geographical conditions, although it is clear, but there is no sacrifice sunshine, there is even a kind of amorphous getting behind. In addition to describing the weather, the author also describes the traveller to go terrain, inaccessible, it is difficult to identify there is a path through the dense woods, a mile wide of the yukon river lay under two feet thick ice, ice and also cover several feet of snow. And after all this is the tragedy of charting the encounter them to do a lot of ground. And the traveler of the novel seems indifferent to all, he is in fact a new man, is the first time for the winter here, maybe he does not think how serious the situation, he is brave. He only took a dog with.

3."fire" naturalistic ideas

The natural tendency

The author from the novel the title of the exhibition to the readers don't start his naturalistic tendency. To Build a Fire that sounds more like a guide manual wood teach people how To live, and in a London is also the best ink in the novel describes the skills needed for survival, such as how To make a Fire, and how To avoid falling into dangerous river, how To cross the river and so on. This detailed descriptions make readers have clear understanding of transaction process. The process in detail description is one of the defining characteristics of naturalism.

Respect for nature, respect nature

The development of science and technology, the wisdom and the ability of highly developed human can feel out of the natural becomes omniscient, omnipotent, and itself has the limitations of the species, and in front of the nature and hubris, be fearless. Jack London by the protagonist in the novel ultimately tragic destiny told the world that should see themselves as human beings

Ordinary subjects of nature, respect nature, respect nature.

Third, make a fire

Fire is a novel BianZhi, and the authors have done work all around the fire. Apply colours to a drawing atmosphere and weather, terrain, describes a dog, even for a BianZhi service. It is in such a cold climate, how important it is a fire, at the same time to be successful in this environment how difficult is born of a fire. The beginning of the novel does not directly write must and importance for the fire, only through the description of his dogs know the fire in such a situation is very important to people or animals. So the fire became not only the hope of the traveler, also became the dog's hope. In this cold climate, the dog has followed the master, just because the master is likely to provide a fire to it. When travelers decided to make a fire, the authors use a lot of space to describe the details of the fire, just to highlight in such cold harsh natural environment, gave birth to one of the difficulties of the fire. Although the natural environment is so cruel, but the human is trying to conquer. Without fire, "the traveler cannot eat, bite cookies also became even hope. A pile of fire has become a necessary for survival. Despite the difficulties, but still fire up, traveler satisfaction through his lunch, but a dog is also very comfortably lying next to the fire, and at that time, around the cold seemed to retreat, they also temporarily forget where. What seems to be going well, travellers rest good to move on again, but the unlucky thing happened, he got stuck in a small puddles, so another fire became a must. The situation become more serious, this time if you don't hurry up to have a fire, he got stuck in the puddles of wet feet in such a low temperature will freeze. But the fire did not smoothly, the author here describes his inner feelings, if the traveler before this has always been very calm, but this time he felt some panic, he several times tried to lit a fire, but all failed, wet feet is becoming more and more loss of consciousness. Tragedies like this happen, and he eventually wanted to kill his dog, hand into its body to keep warm, but he has not arrived, so in addition to death, he had no choice. And to the nature, humans seem so weak, even though he tried to conquer, but finally failed.


Jack London's novels are always full of haggard, full of vitality. "Fire" of the short story "bian men, though his tragedy, but we feel life all the time and stirring and honorable, while the last several times fire all ended in failure, but the effort, and hard, especially in front of the nature and the fearless spirit let a person touched, in front of the nature and not to yield, not compromise, play a song of life.


[1] Huang Cheng march. Wilderness survival - perspective dualism "fire" naturalistic study [J]. Journal of youth. 2013 (33)

[2] cny video. Battle of life and nature -- the feeling after reading "fire" [J]. Journal of literary (theory), 2011 (03)

[3] Xue Hang. Analyze the "fire" is the naturalistic technique [J]. 2009 (16) theory. 

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