Abstract:the English puns of six rhetorical effects include humor, irony, persuasion, interesting and thought-provoking and tragic effect. Because of the complex relationship between English and Chinese, the translation is not easy, and the previous studies on English pun and its translation strategies have been done. The translation strategies of English pun are basically four types: pun intended pun pun pun pun pun translation and flexible use of the means of editing.
Key words: English pun; rhetorical effect; translation strategy
1.The Definition of the Pun
The pun has an honored history. It is a post-Renaissance word and an inaccuratebut convenient tag for a variety of rhetorical devices that plays upon words. Because ofthe special characteristics of the pun, authorities define the pun from differentperspectives, thus, the definitions of the puns are various.
According to The Webster's Third Intel0national Dictionary (1961:2014), pun canbe defined as a "humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest different meaningor applications, or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but differentmeanings: a play on words." The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives a definition to puns as"an amusing use of a word or phrase that has two or more different meanings which iscalled polysemy or of words with the same sound and spelling but different meaningswhich is called homonymy."(1984:751) The Collins English Language Dictionary says that a pun refers to "a use of wordsthat have more than one meaning, or words that have the same sound but differentmeanings, so that what you say have two different meanings and makes peoplelaugh."(1987:1164)
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the pun as "the use of a word in such away as to suggest two or more meanings or different associations, or the use of two ormore words of the same or nearly the same sound with different meanings, so as toproduce a humorous effect." (1989:832)
A new definition from the above can finally be generalized as what is given inPrinceton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, i.e., "a figure of speech depending upona similarity of sound and a disparity of meaning." Therefore, this will be seen as acriterion to judge a pun in this thesis.
From the definitions above, we notice that the definitions of the pun are graduallycompleted with the development of times. Although each of them has its owncharacteristics, they have something in common. That is, first, a pun is a play on aword which has two or more meanings. That is to say, a pun usually exploits wordswhich sound the same or nearly the same in pronunciation but have a great differencein meaning, or a word which has two or more distinct interpretations. In the process ofcommunication, as an addressee, he or she has to make an effort to distinguish themeaning of the word from its other meanings in the current context so as to find out thereal intention of the addresser, it means that a pun activates two or more meanings atthe same time and the addressee gets both the surface meaning and the deep meaningof the word. What the addresser intends to express through his or her words is the deepmeaning which is gained not as easily as its surface meaning but needs more effort.Second, the pun is one }of the rhetorical devices, the use of a pun is to achieve certainlanguage effects, such as humorous effect. For the addresser, the action of playing onwords can not only stir up the addressee's attention and deliver amusement to theaddressee, but also to some degree achieve the purpose of persuading addressee in aneuphemistic way. For the addressee, they are given a great pleasure in the process ofinferring and interpreting the pun. But it is not just so. Redfern (1984:6) argues that theuse of puns does not have to be funny, and the epithets "serious" and "uncomic" haveoften been applied to them. His words to some degree show that the function of thepun is not just limited to its humor and other functions should also be taken intoconsideration, which we will mention later.
2. The Classification of the Pun
As for the special characteristics and complexity of puns, the classifications of puns are various which are only slightly different from each other. Esar (1954:70) has ever said "the variety of puns must be infinite." Bates (1999:98) suggests that it sometimes is a difficult task to decide whether there is a pun or not, "what makes a pun a pun no more definite or absolute than. such a sliding scale. It is not a question of saying for certain what is a pun and what is not; the difference is one of degree but not of kind". Despite the difFculties, many different kinds of classifications for the pun still keep on. Generally speaking, puns are usually divided into two types: homophonic puns and homographic puns. According to The rhetoric of English Writing by professor Wen Jun(1991:315-318), it can be sub-classified into to the following five types: homophonic puns, paronomasia puns, antalaclasis, sylleptic puns and asteismus. Of course, it can not be denied that there does exist a great confusion between these terms as it is not easy to make a clear and neat boundary. What the present study goes here does not analyses puns as its final aims, instead it just tries to explain this -special language phenomenon by a concrete language theory, i.e., the Relevance Theory. As for this purpose, the author thinks the latter classification is more convenient for the following analysis.
2.1 Homophonic pun
Homophonic pun refers to the use of words which share the same pronunciation but have different spellings and meanings. In English, there is a large amount of such kind of words, such as "weak" and "week", "sun" and "son''. For example:
(1) On Sunday they pray for you and on Monday they prey on you. (Zhao 2002:69)
This sentence uses "pray" and "prey" as a pair of pun, which are completely opposed achieve in meaning, it vividly exposes the hypocrisy of some people in the west and an effect of satirizing.
(2) Britannia rules the waves, Mussolini waives the rules (Peng Jiayu & Yu Shaopin ,2001:28)
This sentence is extracted from a critic in the west, when the Great Britain had lost its in Mediterranean and had been not as strong and resplendent as as an overlord he was in 15th thus Mussolini dares to scramble for the hegemony in the sea with the Britain. The critic used "wave" and "waive'' skillfully as a pair of pun to lament for the decay of the England.
According to Steven Paul, paronomasia, or adnominatio, is a Greek word that means "a slight name change". It always involves two words similar in pronunciation. In other words, the pun, originating from Greek, mostly depends on the roots and stems of the words (Wang Zhiwei, 2007:20). Therefore, the use of the word paronomasia "is a figure in which, by means of a modification of sound, or change of letters, a close resemblance to a given verb or noun is produced, so that similar words express dissimilar things" (Cutler, 1988:45). Generally speaking, a paronomasia is the use of two words that share a similar or identical pronunciation, but different in forms and meanings. The following is an example in which paronomasia pun is used:
(3) Drunk drivers put the quart before the hearse. (Wang Lu, 2005: 61)
These words are used to persuade drivers not to drive after drinking. Once hearing this sentence, it is possible for us to misunderstand "put the quart before the hearse" as "put the cart before the horse". That is because there are some similarities between the two groups of words, i.e. "quart" and "cart", "hearse" and "horse". They compose two pair of puns. The real meaning of the sentence is not to say that the driver "put the cart before the horse", but to advise that the drivers should not risk his life after drinking.
Antalaclasis, "a figure which in repeating a word shifts from one of its meanings to another" (Hunt, 1990:113), is in fact a kind of homonymic pun. It usually refers to the use of homonym, i.e. the words that are identical in sound and spelling but different in meaning. And they often appear twice in one sentence. The following examples will show you how this kind of puns work.
(4) We must hang together or we shall all hang separately. (Benjamin Franklin. 1776)
These words come from Benjamin Franklin, a famous politician and inventor in America. He used the word "hang" artfully, in the first half of the sentence, "hang" collocates with the word "together", while in the latter, "hang" and "separately" are used together. Though the same in both spelling and pronunciation, they are completely different in meaning. This smart use of the word "hang" expresses a deep truth in a humorous way that we can live only when we unite closely, otherwise we shall be killed one by one.
(5) To England I will steal, and there I'll steal. (W.Shakespeare, Henry Y, Act 1l: scen e I )
In this sentence, the word "steal" appears twice, but they are different in meaning. The former means "to leave secretly and quietly without being noticed, the latter means "to take dishonestly without permission". They form a pun and show the writer's sense of humor.
3 .rhetorical effect of English pun
Rhetoric function refers to the deliberate use of language processing, and then in the reader to produce unexpected special effects. Pun users through the clever use of words, so that the effect of different rhetoric to achieve. This paper focuses on puns seven rhetorical effects include: humor, irony, persuasion, interesting, thought-provoking, and tragedy and rhetoric effect.
3.1 humorous effect
Humor effect in many rhetorical effects of Puns in the most significant, such examples can be found everywhere, for example:
(1) bicycle can A t stand on its own because it is two a tyred. (tired too)
(2) bald man A drew rabbits on his head. He thought that from a distance they might look like hares. (hairs)".
3.2. Effect of irony
The irony is a rhetorical function of puns. Some people say that in irony, pun even than a sword more powerful, it is the wisdom of language makes sarcastic attack dint stronger, superior. For example:
(3) `You are not eating your fish the waitress said to, "the man." Anything wrong with it?"
"Long time no sea the man replied.."
(4) What do lawyers do after they die?
3.3 persuasion effect
Pun is also persuasive, so it is often used in a variety of advertising language. For example:
(5) a nice trip buy, Have a buy!
(6) KFC At, give you a real meal we, that and 'a good s deal.
3.4 noticeable effect
Pun language Jian Yifeng can a expression of two layers of meaning, and which a meanings are very prominent and interesting enough, so pun is often used for advertisements and news headlines to draw the reader's attention. For example:
(7) your every Hello a real good a bye. Make
(8) Kicks off with Violence Soccer
3.5 set people thinking effect
As is known to all, pun has two meanings, explicit and implicit meaning, which is more difficult to comprehend, and needs more consideration. From this perspective, but also has the effect of pun set people thinking. For example:
(9) is a Marriage school in which a man loses his bachelor s and degree a woman gets her master s degree.
3.6. tragedy effect
A pun often used in literary works, rely on words, produce the effect of tragedy. For example:
(10) `At least put something warm on, Mr. Sober, advised Tessie. "
"I" m almost finished "Morris grunted.
"It's your health said Nick.."
The first floor window shot up. Ida stood there in her flannelled Nightgown, her hair down.
"Are you crazy she shouted to the grocer.?"
"Finished," he answered.
"Up now Ida" shouted. Come
"Finished," cried. Morris (Malamud Bernard, Assistant The)
4 .English pun translation strategies
4.1. to pun pun
Gentleman: First... Am sound. I
Lucio:Nay, as one would say not healthy but so sound as things are that hollow:thy bones are hollow impiety has made a feast of thee..
Gentleman: I am sound.
Road odd Europe: ringing, but is not strong; as hollow as ringing: your bones are empty; lust problems to you emptied.
In English, "sound" can be used as a verb, means "sound", and can be used as an adjective, refers to the physical health of the". In this case, Lucio said the irony lies in the "double sound" the use of the word above. And Chinese "ringing", just can appropriately express "sound" and "healthy" two tiers of meaning, so Chinese "ringing" pun intended to translate the word "sound" in English pun intended, can be regarded as the best choice.
4.2 pun intended as a pun
(3) The driver is safer when the road is dry;the road is safer when the driver is dry.
Road cleaning, driver's safety; driver's sanity, road safety.
(4) some marriage, is a word to, others a, sentence. To
For some, marriage is a certificate; for others, it is a judgment.
In most cases, to achieve the pun translation of puns is not easy. And then you need to mobilize the writing ability, the translation reflects the traces of some word games, remind the reader of the original text to express the rhetoric function of. (3 cases) is a sign, which the word "dry" can "dry", can also refer to a "temperance", through the Chinese "clean" and "clear" two words were a syllable can attract the attention of readers, some of the original warning effect. Cases (4) in the pun is the word "sentence". On the one hand is the meaning of the sentence ", `word correspondence to the original"; on the other hand it has the meaning of "trial", making this sentence pun, memorable. Therefore, the translation of the time, using the "certificate" and "trial" to replace the original "`word" and "sentence" of the corresponding results, the original pun intended to
As a kind of compensation.
4.3 non pun pun
In the process of translation sometimes racking my brain, but it is difficult to find a pun translation of puns, even is the kind of pun translation of puns, therefore, often require the use of non pun translation of puns, at this time, the translator needs to put the meaning of the original pun express, concrete can be divided into two translation strategies are as follows: respectively ideographic and abandon the secondary meaning.
First, meaning respectively
(5) Battle was a soldier bold Ben
Used to war's alarms And;
A cannonball took off his But legs
He laid down his arms. So
Ben Battelle is a soldier of Xiao Yong,
He was used to the alarm of war;
Unfortunately, a shell destroyed his legs,
He had to lay down his arms and lay down his arms.
In the preceding example, "arms" when translated into Chinese, respectively translated the "arms" and "the weapon", through such ideographic respectively, makes the original two tiers of meaning are reflected, is also an expression of the effect of a tragedy.
Second, abandon the secondary meaning
(6) Farewell to Arms A
A farewell to arms
In Hemingway's novel Farewell to Arms A topic, "arms" on the one hand refers to weapons, represents the war; on the other hand, the arm, represents the embrace and love. In the translation, the meaning of love as a secondary meaning is lost, so the "farewell to arms".
4.4 means of editing
Sometimes in order to fully express the effect of the original text, it is very effective to use the method of editing and other translation strategies in combination with other translation strategies. Editing means including parenthesis notation method, footnote, endnote, and in the translation preface or postscript comment and so on. Usually case, parenthesis notation method, footnotes and endnotes will inevitably block readers reading, so that not million has been, in general should not be used. Although the editing methods often as a last resort to pun translation strategies, but if used in conjunction with other translation strategies, also can in a certain extent make up for pun intended to losses in the process of translation, provides information for readers to maximize.
The study of pun and its translation has revealed the charm of language in the detailed level, which has promoted the communication between different languages and cultures, and has attracted many language learners and translators. This paper discusses and analyzes the several typical classification of English puns and its rhetoric result, summed up the four kinds of commonly used English close double Yuhan translation strategies. However the limited space and some problems to be further discussed and expect more from a new perspective on the field of research.
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